The issue with the question is that it depends firmly what you expect to do. In the event that you are an architect at a power plant looking after gear, your required “essential information” is not quite the same as an ME planning a portable PC. Here is my main 5 (much else besides 5 is no more extended “fundamental”:
1-Mechanics – statics, progression, a quality of materials… ..this requires in any event trig for math.
2-Materials – know and comprehend the properties and qualities of an extensive variety of materials including metals, plastics, and so on.
3-3D thinking – you should have the capacity to think in 3 measurements since the world is 3 measurements. Computer aided design is an ability that requires this sort of considering, however, CAD is an apparatus.
4-Basic warmth exchange – how would you make warm go where you need it to go
5-Basic liquid mechanics – how would you get liquids/gasses to go where you need them to go.
Lamentably, this isn’t a thorough rundown. An ME’s instruction begins with college then proceeds all through their working vacation